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    • The Precious New Pearl
    • circa 1450 – 1480

    This is one of only six known complete manuscripts of a 14th-century alchemical treatise; all the extant manuscripts date from the 15th century or later. This copy includes lengthy contemporary glosses, possibly…

    • circa 1450 – 1475

    This alchemical miniature is believed to be from Das Buch der heiligen Dreifaltigkeit [The Book of the Holy Trinity], based on the iconography depicted and its relation to the text. Das Buch der heiligen Dreifaltigkeit

    • circa 1450 – 1475

    This alchemical miniature is believed to be from Das Buch der heiligen Dreifaltigkeit [The Book of the Holy Trinity], based on the iconography depicted and its relation to the text. Das Buch der heiligen Dreifaltigkeit

    • circa 1450 – 1475

    This alchemical miniature is believed to be from Das Buch der heiligen Dreifaltigkeit [The Book of the Holy Trinity], based on the iconography depicted and its relation to the text. Das Buch der heiligen Dreifaltigkeit

    • Part of Das Buch der heiligen Dreifaltigkeit [The Book of the Holy Trinity]
    • circa 1450 – 1475

    These three alchemical miniatures are believed to be from Das Buch der heiligen Dreifaltigkeit [The Book of the Holy Trinity], based on the iconography depicted and their relation to the text. Das Buch der heiligen…

    • circa 1520 – 1540

    Found in its original plain binding of parchment, this work was most likely compiled by a practitioner of alchemy and medicine. Containing a handwritten copy of Liber lucis by John of Rupescissa (Johannes de Rupescissa)…

    • 1529 (M.D.XXIX)

    First edition published by Heinrich Stayner of De re militari, a classic work on the science of making war by Publius Flavius Vegetius Renatus, commonly referred to as Vegetius, a writer from the Later Roman Empire…

    • 1529 (M.D.XXIX)

    Illustrated title page with a woodcut after Hans Weiditz by Jörg Brou the elder of Schoeller, showing a military scene with men in armor, some of whom are carrying long swords and spears in front of decorated tents.

    • 1529 (M.D.XXIX)

    War engine with wheels, face, and spikes, apparently used to break up enemy ranks or crush enemy troops.

    • Falx
    • 1529 (M.D.XXIX)

    The siege hook, or falx, was a siege engine dating back to Roman times. Similar to a battering ram, the siege hook was tipped with a pry bar, and the ram had handles for twisting and either splintering wooden doors or…

    • 1529 (M.D.XXIX)

    A siege engine in the form of a portable shelter behind which soldiers could take cover and advance in the face of projectiles. This one appears to be equipped with a perforated grate in the middle through which the…

    • 1529 (M.D.XXIX)

    Artist's depiction of Publius Flavius Vegetius Renatus, commonly referred to as Vegetius, a writer from the Later Roman Empire (circa 4th century) who wrote extensively on military matters.

    • 1529 (M.D.XXIX)

    A war engine with four wheels in the shape of an animal with the feet of a bird and the head of a lion, operated by three soldiers.

    • 1529 (M.D.XXIX)

    A siege engine in the form of a portable shelter behind which soldiers could take cover and advance in the face of projectiles. This form is equipped with spikes to deter head-on attack from opposing forces.

    • Aries
    • 1529 (M.D.XXIX)

    A battering ram with an iron tip in the shape of a ram's head.

    • 1529 (M.D.XXIX)

    The sling stave is a staff with a sling at the end, used for hurling smaller projectiles. In Latin it is called a fustibalus. One cord of the sling is attached to the staff or "stave" and the other end has a loop that…

    • 1529 (M.D.XXIX)

    A wooden catapult used for hurling an object such as a stone.

    • 1529 (M.D.XXIX)

    The mangonel was a type of catapult used generally for hurling stones at a besieged castle's walls. As Vegetius writes, "But the mangonel shoots stones, and throws various weights in proportion to the thickness of the…

    • 1529 (M.D.XXIX)

    Soldier holding a sling used for hurling projectiles and an enlarged view of the sling itself.

    • 1529 (M.D.XXIX)

    The image shows a soldier climbing a siege ladder alongside a schematic of a different ladder in three parts that can be screwed together.

    • 1529 (M.D.XXIX)

    A soldier ascends a drawbridge supported by ropes hanging from supporting beams.

    • 1529 (M.D.XXIX)

    A soldier ascends a siege ladder equipped with wheels.

    • 1529 (M.D.XXIX)

    A fortified tower filled with soldiers is raised using a telescoping leg system driven by a pulley.

    • 1529 (M.D.XXIX)

    Soldiers wearing armor engaged in sword combat wielding a spiked shield.

    • 1529 (M.D.XXIX)

    On the left is a telescoping siege device powered by a screw mechanism, and on the right is a rope ladder dangling from a castle tower.