Fig. 1: The set up for filling a balloon with rarified air (i.e., hot air). A scaffold (ABCD) is pierced by the exhaust pipe (EF) of a stove at ground level. When the balloon is ready to be filled, the top of the balloon is suspended over the scaffold, supported by a rope strung through pulley-topped masts (HI and KL); the neck of the balloon is placed over the exhaust, and the fire is lit, filling the balloon with hot air. The faint, dotted lines describe how the slack balloon (MNO) drapes over the scaffold prior to inflation.
Fig. 2: A rarified air machine in the air.
Fig. 3: The set up for filling a balloon with inflammable air (i.e., hydrogen gas). Casks containing iron filings, water, and vitriolic (sulfuric) acid produce the hydrogen gas; tin tubes (E) convey the gas to the balloon; masts, pulleys, and ropes are used to support the inflating balloon (CFD), which is then affixed to the hoop (MN) from which the passenger boat (IK) is suspended.
Fig. 4: An inflammable air balloon in the air.
Fig. 5: Diagram to illustrate the trigonometric calculation of balloon altitude, where ABCD represents the earth and F the place of the aeronaut.
|Place of publication|
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Cavallo, Tiberius. “Plate II: Inflating and Flying Hot Air and Hydrogen Balloons.” In The History and Practice of Aerostation. London, England: Charles Dilly, 1785. https://digital.sciencehistory.org/works/x633f1065.
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