This report outlines the colorimetric and electrical ways to determine the pH of a solution and the various kinds of electrodes that can be used with electrical instruments. Beckman concludes that a method using glass electrodes is the best choice.
Arnold Beckman invented his first pH meter in 1934 at the request of a chemist from the California citrus industry, who needed an accurate way to measure the acidity of his product. The resulting instrument kicked off rapid development not only of Beckman Instruments, Inc. but also of the electronic scientific instrument industry.
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Beckman, Arnold O. “A Discussion of PH Measurement Methods,” August 1936. Beckman Historical Collection, Box 104, Folder 11. Science History Institute. Philadelphia. https://digital.sciencehistory.org/works/2801pg85d.
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