Plate illustrates the Tuscan landscape before the introduction of the borax industry. The foreground depicts Tuscan lagoons, where borax was found circa 1776. Steam charged with boron compounds escapes volcanic crevices called suffioni. Boric acid is formed when this steam hits water.
This plate is from John Howard Appleton's (1844-1930) Chemistry, Developed by Facts and Principles Drawn Chiefly from the Non-Metals, published in 1884. Intended as an introduction to the study of chemistry, this volume contains illustrations throughout the text including color plates. Color plates have been digitized along with a selection of illustrations.
Appleton, John Howard. “Figure 49: View of the Tuscan Landscape before the Introduction of the Borax Industry.” Chemistry, Developed by Facts and Principles Drawn Chiefly from the Non-Metals. Providence, Rhode Island: Providence Lithograph Company, 1884. Science History Institute. Philadelphia. https://digital.sciencehistory.org/works/mfo6adw.
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