Figures 10 through 12 from the 1915 volume The Rare Earth Industry. Figures 10 and 11 are photomicrographs showing collodion fibers used in the manufacture of incandescent gas mantles before and after burning. The photomicrographs are reproduced from the 1912 volume, "Dictionary of Applied Chemistry" by Sir Edward Thorpe (1845-1925). Figure 12 is an illustration of a washing machine used to cleanse cotton and ramie webs from mineral matter and fatty substances. The webs are washed prior to being infused with a rare earth solution for use as gas mantles.
The volume details various industrial applications of rare earths and closely-related elements, including thorium, zirconium, tantalum, and tungsten. Particular attention is given to the illuminating effect of the oxides of thorium and cerium and their application to the manufacture of incandescent gas mantles and electric lamps. The volume also includes chapters on uranium and vanadium, as well as the industry of radioactive substances.
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Johnstone, Sydney J. (Sydney James), and Russell, Alexander S. (Alexander Smith), b. 1888. “Figure 10. Collodion before Burning Off. Figure 11. Collodion after Burning Off. Figure 12. Washing Machine.” The Rare Earth Industry: Including the Manufacture of Incandescent Mantles, Pyrophoric Alloys, and Electrical Glow Lamps. New York, New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1915. https://digital.sciencehistory.org/works/yjsylxl.
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Figure 10. Collodion before Burning Off. Figure 11. Collodion after Burning Off. Figure 12. Washing Machine.
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