General view of a heat converter, interchanger, and condenser used for water-gas hydrogen production at the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Fixed Nitrogen Research Laboratory located in Washington, D.C. The term "water gas" commonly refers to the mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen and was popularly used in industrial reactions to manufacture ammonia, hydrocarbons, methanol, and hydrogen in the early 20th century.
The Fixed Nitrogen Research Laboratory (F.N.R.L.) was established at American University in 1919 under the directorship of Arthur B. Lamb. Initially part of the War Department, the F.N.R.L. was the successor to several wartime initiatives to develop a secure domestic supply of nitrate compounds necessary for the manufacture of explosives during World War I. With a staff of about 110 individuals, including 35 to 50 chemists, the F.N.R.L. focused on the manufacture, production, and development of products of atmospheric nitrogen, including munitions and fertilizers.
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“Heat Converter, Interchanger, and Condenser for Water-Gas Hydrogen Production,” April 1926. Travis P. Hignett Collection of Fixed Nitrogen Research Laboratory Photographs, Box 1. Science History Institute. Philadelphia. https://digital.sciencehistory.org/works/td96k2606.
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